State Library Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 85 May 2010

[Back matter]



Repressed, Resourceful and Respected

1. Tom Griffiths, 'Sources for the study of Koorie history of Victoria', La Trobe Library Journal, no. 43, Autumn 1989. Copy available on-line at
2. This project was the ARC Linkage Project 'Trust and Technology: Building Archival Systems for Indigenous Oral Memory'. Others working on this project have included my Monash colleagues Professor Sue McKemmish, Associate Professor Graeme Johanson and Dr Shannon Faulkhead, while Professor Don Schauder and Dr Kirsty Williamson were invovled in the earlier phases.
3. As Edward Said noted in his 1978 seminal study, Orientalism, anthropology has often been the 'handmaiden' of colonialism.
4. Richard Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: a history since 1800, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005.
5. Geoffrey Blainey, A History of Victoria, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 85.
6. Tom Griffiths, Hunters and Collectors: the antiquarian imagination in Australia, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Similarly, Carolyn Rasmussen has shown in her history of the Museum of Victoria that by 1860 annual visitors exceeded 35,000, nearly 7% of the colony's population. See her A Museum for the People: a history of Museum Victoria and its predecessors, 1854-2000, Carlton Vic: Scribe Publications, 2001.
7. I am currently engaged in a large collaborative project with Dr Gareth Knapman (Melbourne Museum) and Dr Leigh Boucher (Macquarie University) examining this group of Victorian ethnographers. My musings here are drawn from our discussions on this topic.
8. George Augustus Robinson (17911866). See
9. Gary Presland, (edited and introduced), Journals of G. A. Robinson, May to August 1841: extracts of manuscripts held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation, 1980. Also Journals of George Augustus Robinson: January-March 1840, Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation, 1977, and Journals of George Augustus Robinson: MarchMay 1840, Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation, 1977. Ian D. Clark (edited and introduced), The Port Phillip Journals of George Augustus Robinson: 8 March7 April 1842 and 18 March29 April 1843, Melbourne: Dept. of Geography, Monash University, 1988. Also The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, vols 1-4, Melbourne: Heritage Matters, 1998-2001.
10. Robert Brough Smyth ((18301889). See
11. R Brough Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria..., 2 vols, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1878.
12. William Thomas (17931867). Assistant Protector and Guardian of Aborigines in the Port Phillip District. See
13. Edward Micklethwaite Curr (18201889). See
14. Alfred William Howitt (18301908). See
15. A. W. Howitt, The Native Tribes of South-East Australia, London: Macmillan, 1904. Reissued in facsimile, Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1996.
16. James Dawson (18061900). See

George Augustus Robinson on Charles Joseph La Trobe

1. Vivienne Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson: protector of Aborigines, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1988; Alan Gross, Charles Joseph La Trobe: superintendent of the Port Phillip District 1839-1851, Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria 1851-1854, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1956.
2. M. F. Christie, Aborigines in Colonial Victoria 1835-86, Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1979 & Edmund J. B Foxcroft, Australian Native Policy: its history especially in Victoria, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1941.
3. Ian D Clark, ed., The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate 1 January 183930 September 1852, 6 vols, 2nd Edition, Clarendon, Victoria: Heritage Matters, 2000. References are generally cited as journal entries. The State Library of Victoria holds microfilm copies of the originals in the Australian Manuscript Collections at MF 1–5.
4. Gross, p. 54.
5. Gross.
6. Rae-Ellis, p. 196.
7. Rae-Ellis, p. 252.
8. Dianne Reilly Drury, Charles Joseph La Trobe Australian Notes 1839-1854, Mansfield, Vic.: Boz Publishing, 2007, p. 75.
9. Rae-Ellis, p. 96.
10. Dianne Reilly Drury, La Trobe: the making of a governor, Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press, 2006, p. 194.
11. New South Wales (Aborigines), New South Wales Legislative Council Votes and Proceedings, Sydney: Government Printer, 1843. Foxcroft, p. 55.
12. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson.
13. Rae-Ellis, p. 246.
14. New South Wales Aborigines and Protectorate. Report from the Select Committee on the Aborigines and Protectorate, with Appendix, Minutes of Evidence, and Replies to a Circular Letter, Sydney: Government Printer, 1849, p. 4.
15. Aborigines and Protectorate, p. 8.
16. Ian D. Clark, ed., The Papers of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, Annual and Occasional Reports 184149, Clarendon, Victoria: Heritage Matters, 2000, p. 174.
17. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 146.
18. James W. Dredge. Diaries. Entry for 26 March, 1839, MS 5244, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
19. Dredge. Diaries. Entry for 26 of January 1841.
20. Dredge. Diaries. Entry for 11 of October, 1838.
21. James W. Dredge. Letterbook 20 April 18393 January 1845. Entry for 3 of July 1840, MS 11625, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
22. Christie; H. G Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria, 2 vols, London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1904.
23. Foxcroft, p. 64.

'Are You off to The Diggings?'

1. Fiona Probyn, 'An Ethics of Following and the No Road Film: Trackers, Followers and Fanatics,' Australian Humanities Review, Issue 37, December 2005; P. Clarke, Aboriginal Plant Collectors: botanists and Australian Aboriginal people in the nineteenth century, Dural, NSW: Rosenberg Publishing, 2008; Henry Reynolds, Black Pioneers, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 2000.
4. J. D. Mereweather, Diary of a Working Clergyman in Australia, 18503, London: Hatchard, 1859.
5. A. Le Souef, 'Personal Recollections of Early Victoria'. Unpublished manuscript held in the South Australia Museum.
6. See Ian D. Clark and D. F. Cahir, 'The Comfort of Strangers: hospitality on the Victorian Goldfields, 1850-1860', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 15, 2008, pp. 2–7;
D. F. Cahir, 'Black Gold: the role of Aboriginal people on the goldfields of Victoria, 1850-1870'. Unpublished PhD Thesis, School of Business, University of Ballarat, 2007.
7. D. F. Cahir, 'Conflict and Conciliation: a history of Wathawurrung encounters with the colonisers, 1797-1849'. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Ballarat, 2001.
8. G. Baker, 'Exploring with Aborigines: Thomas Mitchell and his Aboriginal guides', Aboriginal History, no. 22, 1988, p. 36.
9. Reynolds, pp. 96–7.
10. L. Blake, Gold Escorts in Australia, South Melbourne, Vic.: Mamllan, 1993, p. 20.
11. Halls Gap & Grampians Historical Society, Victoria's Wonderland, Halls Gap, Vic.: The Society, 2006, pp. 3–4.
12. See Le Souef; S. Robe, ed., Seweryn Korzelinski: memoirs of gold-digging in Australia, St Lucia, Qld: UQP, 1979, p. 18.
13. Clarke, 1860, cited in S. Wesson, 'The Aborigines of Eastern Victoria and Far South-Eastern New South Wales, 18301910: an historical geography'. Unpublished PhD thesis, Monash University, 2002, p. 228.
14. R. Gow, 'Journal', MS 24, AIATSIS, Canberra.
15. W. T. Dawson cited in John Adams, Mountain Gold, Trafalgar, Vic.: Trafalgar Shire Council, 1980, p. 20.
16. John Sherer, The Gold-Finder of Australia, first published in 1853, facsimile edition, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1973, p. 131.
17. F. Lancelott, Australia as It Is: its settlements, farms and goldfields, London: Colburn & Co, 1852, pp. 50-1.
18. Phillip Pepper and T. de Araugo, What Did Happen to the Aborigines of Victoria. Volume 1: the Kurnai of Gippsland, Melbourne: Hyland House, 1985, p. 102.
19. From 'The Emigrant in Australia', p. 71 cited in Robin Annear, Nothing But Gold: the diggers of 1852, Melbourne: Text Publishing, 1999, pp. 73–4.
20. Tom Griffiths, ed., The Life and Adventures of Edward Snell, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1988, p. 277.
21. Blake, p. 31.
22. Baker in Castlemaine Association of Pioneers and Old Residents, Records of the Castlemaine Pioneers, Melbourne, Rigby, 1972, p. 109. Ned Peters' party was also totally reliant on their Aboriginal guides. See L. Blake, ed., A Gold Digger's Diaries by Ned Peters, Geelong, Vic.: Neptune Press, 1981, p. 24.
23. J. Chapple, 'Diary', MS 11792, Australian Manuscript Collection, State Library of Victoria.
24. B. Collett, Wednesdays Closest to the Full Moon, Carlton, Vic.: MUP, 1994, pp. 56-7.
25. R. Christie, Tracks to the Woods Point and Jordan Goldfields, Woods Point, Vic.: The Author, 1989.
26. K. Fairweather, Time to Remember: the history of gold mining on the Tambo and its tributaries, Bairnsdale, Vic.: James Yeates and Sons, 1975, p. 16.
27. B. Lloyd and H. Combes, Gold at Gaffneys Creek, Wangaratta, Vic.: Shoe String Press, 1981.
28. P. Gootch, 'Canadian and Prince Regent Gullies'. Geelong Advertiser, 10 September 1852.
29. C. Ferguson, Experiences of a Forty-Niner in Australia and New Zealand, first published in 1888, facsimile edition, Melbourne: Cheshire, 1979.
30. H. W. Forster, Waranga. Melbourne: Cheshire, 1965, p. 19.
31. S. M. Walker, Glenlyon Connections, Stanthorpe, Qld: Author, 1993, p. 227.
32. Sherer, p. 131.
33. Ibid.
34. H. Haustorfer, 'Reminiscences', MS 7033, Folder 23, National Library of Australia.
35. Mereweather, pp. 146-7.
36. 'Bark Canoes', Illustrated Melbourne Post, 1862; Mereweather, pp. 145,193 & 209.
37. H. D. Castella, Australian Squatters, trans. C. B. Thornton-Smith, Melbourne: MUP, 1987 p. 128.
38. Howitt Papers, sourced from B. Attwood, ed., A Life Together, a Life Apart: a history of relations between Europeans and Aborigines, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1994, p. 139.
39. Thomas Blyth, 'Diary', MS 3878, National Library of Australia.
40. Castella, pp.135-6.
41. James Dannock`, 'Autobiography', Mfm M1862, National Library of Australia, p. 63.
42. See A. Mitchell, Fernshaw the Forgotten Village, Healesville, Vic.: The Author, 2001; R. Christie and W. Gray, Victoria's Forgotten Goldfield: history of Dargo and Crooked River, Sale, Vic.: The Authors 1981; M. Ronan, ed., Early Dederang 1854-1956 from the notebook of Michael James Goonan, [Balwyn North, Vic.:] The Author, 2004; D. O'Bryan, Pioneering East Gippsland, Gisborne, Vic.: The Author, 1983.
43. S. Mossman, ed., Emigrants' Letters from Australia, London: Addey and Co., 1853, p. 35.
44. G. Fead, 'Notes of an Unsettled Life', Gippsland Heritage Journal, no. 16, 1994, p. 32.
45. Fead, p. 35.
46. Thomas Pierson, 'Diaries', MS 11646, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
47. G. Sugden, 'Pioneering Life in Outback Stations of Victoria', MS 301, Royal Historical Society of Victoria, pp. 85-96.
48. Gow, 'Journal', p. 7; R. Salisbury, Letter, MS 210, National Library of Australia.
49. C. Lousada, 'Old Brandy Creek and Other Reminiscences', MS 350, Royal Historical Society of Victoria, p. 8.
50. R. Christie, Across the Alps, Stratford, Vic.: High Country, 1989, pp. 23-36.

'It's Not Cricket'

1. F. Kruger, circa 1877, Aboriginal Cricketers at Corranderrk, Photograph, Pictures Collection, H33802/23, State Library of Victoria. Coranderrk is incorrectly spelt 'Corranderrk' on the caption to this image. This spelling has been followed where the image has been cited with the correct spelling used elsewhere.
2. The position of Guardian was limited to operate in the counties of Bourke and Mornington that adjoined Melbourne. 'Later the county of Evelyn was added as many of the Woiworung preferred to camp in the Yarra Ranges', D. E. Barwick, Rebellion at Coranderrk, Aboriginal History Monograph 5, Melbourne: Aboriginal Affairs Victoria, 1998, p. 35.
3. Ibid, p. 37.
4. Ibid, p. 38.
5. Ibid, p. 40.
6. Ibid, p. 46.
7. Ibid, p. 43.
8. Ibid, pp. 43-44.
9. According to Barwick (whose Rebellion at Coranderrk provides a definitive account of Board operations in the 19th century) 'The seven worthy gentlemen who volunteered their time to watch over the interests of the Aborigines in 1860, and who framed the legislation for their protection, were genuinely concerned about the social and moral issues of contemporary race relations. They had to design policies without any information on comparable problems and administrative remedies, and had to fight the inertia and greed of their fellow colonists to implement those policies. Their belief in the potential of Aborigines to adapt to their middle class version of the good life when offered opportunities for European-style schooling, housing and employment was a positively radical viewpoint ... What information Board members had on race relations overseas was limited and not reassuring. The press was full of accounts of native wars in Asia, Africa and North America; there was some alarm at the likely consequences of Mr Lincoln's policies; and for years there had been shocking accounts of Maori uprisings in New Zealand ... there was little information available on the administration of indigenous minorities in British colonies. The
Board in fact had no precedents. Theirs was the first attempt to draft protective legislation in Australia – the first legislation for Canadian Indians did not appear until 1865 and welfare legislation for New Zealand Maoris was delayed until 1867. The Legislation framed by the board between 1861 and 1863, but not passed as the Aborigines Act until 1869, was intended to be benevolent. The provisions were those considered necessary by Thomas, who had seen the Woiworung and the Bunurong dwindle from 300 to 30 in two decades ... in the contemporary violence and ill will the 1869 Act was beneficial. In attempting to regulate residence, employment and access to liquor, the authors aimed to curb the nastier propensities of Europeans rather than limit the civil liberties of Aborigines.' Ibid, p. 46.
10. Peter Snodgrass. Snodgrass, a member of the Legislative Council and the Select Committee that had recommended the establishment of the Central Board as well as a local correspondent to the Board used his insider knowledge to dispossess the Kulin from Acheron. Shifted to an unproductive adjoining site at Mohican Station the Taungurong were unable to realise their hope to become a prosperous community of Aboriginal farmers whose cultural independence would be maintained through economic self-sufficiency.
11. Thomas quoted in Barwick, p. 51.
12. Ibid, p. 83.
13. 'Nineteenth century Victorian officials generally believed that Aborigines were a 'childlike race' requiring authoritarian direction and paternalistic. Green was the only one ... who ever entrusted full responsibility for discipline to the residents. He was almost unique in treating the Kulin as 'free and independent men and women' who would work well if well led but would not be driven. He considered them the equal to Europeans in intelligence and superior in honesty and truthfulness; there were no locks at Coranderrk for eight years until strangers came ... He disapproved of coercion and insisted that the only effective method of bringing about change was by example and explanation. He believed that 'They are very proud and sensitive, and you can work a great deal upon their pride: in that way you can make them see that it is disgraceful to take what they have not earned ... John Green was one of the few who considered that people of wholly Aboriginal ancestry, were as intelligent and capable as 'half castes' and Europeans. He insisted that 'half-castes' had no inherent superiority; their only advantage was that they met with less prejudice from Europeans. The evidence he presented in annual reports and at later enquires was ignored'. Ibid, pp. 59, 67-68.
14. Ibid, p. 69.
15. In an admirable political campaign remarkable for its sophisticated use of public opinion and its longevity, the Kulin, led by William Barak masterfully forced the Government of Victoria to overrule Board policy and secure Aboriginal tenure of Coranderrk. In response the Board changed tactics and lobbied for the removal of the 'half-castes'. The intelligence and understanding of colonial politics that Barak possessed is evidenced in his letter to the Argus in 1882 in which he implores public support for Kulin aspirations. 'Sir, – We beg of you to put in our little column in you valuable paper please. We have seen and heard that the managers of all the stations and the Central Board to have had a meeting about what to be done, so we have heard there is going to be very strict rules on the station and more rules will be to much for us, it seems we are all going to be treated like slaves, far as we heard of it, – we wish to ask those Managers of the station Did we steal anything out of the colony or murdered anyone or are we prisoners or convict. We should think we are all free any white man of the colony. When we all heard of it, it made us very vex it enough to make us all go mad the way they are going to treat us it seems very hard. We all working in peace and quietness and happy, please Mr. Goodall, and also showing Mr Goodall that we could work if we had a good manager expecting our wishes to be carried out, what we have asked for, but
it seems it was the very opposite way. So we don't know what to do since we heard those strict rules planned out. It has made us downhearted. We must try again and go to the head of the Colony. – We are all your Most Obedient Servants, Wm Barak (X), Tho. Avoca, Dick Richard (X), Tho. Mickey (X), Lankey (X), Lankey Manto, Tho Dunolly, Robert Wandon, Alfred Morgan, Wm Parker. Coranderrk, August 29, 1882', quoted A. Heiss, and P. Minter, 2008, Macquarie Pen Anthology of Aboriginal Literature, Allen and Unwin, Sydney: p. 15.
16. Jane Lydon, Eye Contact: photographing Indigenous Australians, Durham: Duke University Press, 2005, p. 125.
17. Ibid, p. 126.
18. Ibid, p. 129.
19. K. A. P. Sandiford, Cricket and the Victorians, Aldershot, Hampshire: Scholar Press, Aldershot, 1994, pp. 1-2.
20. See Ashley Mallett, The Black Lords of Summer: the story of the 1868 Aboriginal tour of England and beyond, St. Lucia, QLD: UQP, 2002. See also D. J. Mulvaney, Cricket Walkabout: the Australian cricketers on tour 1867-68, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1967.
21. Hamilton Spectator, 25 August 1866, quoted in B. Whimpress, Passport to Nowhere: Aborigines in Australian cricket 1850-1939, Sydney: Walla Walla Press, 1999, pp. 74-75.
22. The professional status of the Aboriginal team and the exoticism that it used to draw crowds was considered to be degrading to the cricketing ideals of the Victorians. The entertainment qualities of the all Aboriginal team which mixed cricket with displays of savage pursuits including spear and boomerang throwing were frowned upon by the Victorian cricket purist because these reminded them of the Georgian cricket of the 18th century and its popular commercial element that came to associate the game with excessive drunkenness and unscrupulous gambling. See D. Underdown, Start of Play: cricket and culture in eighteenth century England, London: Allen Lane, 2000.
23. Whimpress, Meston quoted in ibid, p. 31.
24. Whimpress, Spencer quoted in ibid, p. 31.
25. Ibid, p. 36.
26. Mosely quoted in Lydon, p. 125.
27. For an in-depth and considered discussion of the relationship between Victorian and Edwardian understandings of race in the context of imperial cricket, see J. Williams Cricket and Race, Oxford: Berg Press, 2001.
28. Barwick, p. 264.
29. Ibid, p. 277.
30. While the conservative members of the Board led by Edward Curr had long advocated the merging the 'half-caste' population with the broader colonial society, by the 1880s this policy agenda had succeeded in gaining the support of anti-Board radicals including the wealthy land holder and philanthropist, Anne Bon, Premier and Chief Secretary of Victoria, Graham Berry and his political protégé and the future prime minister of Australia, Alfred Deakin.
31. See John Chesterman and Brian Galligan, Citizens Without Rights: Aboriginal and Australian citizenship, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
32. For purely economic arguments for the disappearance of Aboriginal cricket see C. Tatz, Obstacle Race: Aborigines in Sport, Kensington, NSW: UNSW Press, 1995.
33. C. L. R. James, Beyond a Boundary, Durham: Duke University Press, 1993 (first published 1963).

James Dawson's Scrapbook

1. James Dawson, The Australian Aborigines: the languages and customs of several tribes in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, Canberra: AIATSIS 1981 (facsimile of original 1881 edition). While
James Dawson is credited as the author of Australian Aborigines, a significant proportion of the work was undertaken by his daughter Isabella.
2. James Dawson, 'Scrapbook', Microfilm copy, MS 11514, Australian Manuscript Collection, State Library of Victoria. Original in private hands.
3. Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2000.
4. This article, which has benefited from the suggestions made by an insightful anonymous reader, expands on a portrait of Dawson briefly sketched in Raymond Madden, 'Victoria's Western District' in Peter Beilharz & T. Hogan, eds, Sociology: place, time and division, South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 99–102.
5. Jan Critchett, 'Introduction to the Facsimile Edition' in Dawson, Australian Aborigines.
6. Dawson, 'Scrapbook', p. 106.
7. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. lxxxiii (see entry on 'Wuurna weewheetch').
8. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 61.
9. Peter Corris, 'Dawson, James (Jimmy) (18061900)' in Australian Dictionary of Biography Online,
10. Dawson, 'Scrapbook'.
11. Ibid.
12. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. v. Note also that this was a widely held belief, and in context, a reasonable one given the drastic population collapse suffered by Aboriginal groups in colonial Victoria.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid, p. iv.
15. Ibid, pp. iv-v.
16. The cartoon was drawn by John Tenniel, a regular Punch contributor who was demonstrably 'Hibernia-phobic'. He was also the illustrator of the original Alice in Wonderland.
17. 'Caliban' is the bestial and evil character of Shakespeare's Tempest.
18. P. Valley, 'A Case of Mistaken Identity' in The Independent, 24 February 1996, (accessed online 31 March 2009).
19. See A. Bourke, The Burning of Bridget Cleary: a true story, London: Pimlico, 1999, for a comprehensive account of this murder and trial.
20. Dawson, 'Scrapbook'.
21. Dawson, 'Scrapbook'.
22. R. V. Billis and A. S. Kenyon, Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip, Melbourne: Stockland Press Pty. Ltd, 1974 (2nd edition, originally published 1932), p. 201.

My Mate Ellen

1. Minnie Brewer, 'Memoirs, ca. 1915-1928', MS 13262, Box 299/9, Book 2, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria. Hereafter 'Brewer Memoirs'.
2. Lyn Riddett, "'Watch the White Woman Fade": Aboriginal and white women in the Northern Territory 1870-1940', Hecate, vol. 19, no. 1, 1993, pp. 73-92, 90. For other studies in this revisionist vein, see Elizabeth West, 'White Women in Colonial Australia', Refractory Girl, March 1977, pp. 5460; Judith Godden, 'A new look at the pioneer woman', Hecate, vol. 5, no. 2, 1979, pp. 6-21; Marilyn Lake, ''Building Themselves Up With Aspros": pioneer women re-assessed', Hecate, vol. 7, no. 2, 1981, pp. 7-19; Myrna Tonkinson, 'Sisterhood or Aboriginal Servitude? Black women and white women on the Australian frontier', Aboriginal History, vol. 12, no. 1, 1988, pp. 27-39.
3. Janet Doust, 'Exploring Gentry Women on the New South Wales Frontier in the 1820s and 1830s', Women's History Review, vol. 18, no. 1, February 2009, pp. 137-153. See Patricia Grimshaw and Julie Evans, 'Colonial women on intercultural frontiers: Rosa Campbell Praed, Mary Bundock, and Katie Langloh-Parker', Australian Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 106, April 1996, pp. 79-95; Meg Vivers, 'Dealing With Difference: evidence of European women in early contact history', Journal of
Australian Colonial History
, vol. 4, no. 2, October 2002, pp. 72-76; Sue Sheridan, '''Wives and mothers like ourselves, poor remnants of a dying race": Aborigines in colonial women's writing' (1988), in Along the Faultlines: sex, race and Nation in Australian Women's Writing, Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1995, pp. 121–134.
4. W. E. H. Stanner, White Man Got No Dreaming: essays 18381973 Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979, pp, 207-217; see also Henry Reynolds, Why Weren't We Told?: a personal search for the truth about our history, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1999, p. 94.
5. M. E. McGuire, 'The Legend of the Good Fella Missus', Aboriginal History, vol. 14, no. 2, 1990, pp. 124-151, 124. For examples of such heroic representations of pioneer women in their relationships with Aboriginal people, see Patricia Thompson & Susan Yorke (eds), Lives Obscurely Great: historical essays on women of New South Wales, Sydney: Society of Women Writers (Australia) NSW Branch, 1980, including Hazel de Berg & Anne Boyd, 'Bring Your Scissors, Lady: the matriarch of Forster', pp. 125-128; Marjorie Kendall, 'Sarah Claydon: foster-mother to Aboriginal Children', pp. 38-45.
6. Patricia Grimshaw and Julie Evans, 'Colonial Women on Intercultural Frontiers: Rosa Campbell Praed, Mary Bundock, and Katie Langloh-Parker', Australian Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 106, April 1996, pp. 79-95, 80.
7. The 'sexual jealousy' thesis – the idea that white women were jealous of Aboriginal women and saw them as sexual rivals for white men – has been used by historians since the 1970s to explain or argue for colonial white women's hostility to Aboriginal women, and by implication racial discord in general. See Miriam Dixson, The Real Matilda: women and identity in Australia, 1788 to 1975 Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1976, p. 198. See also Lyn Riddett, ''Watch the White Women Fade', Hecate vol. 19, no. 1, 1993, pp. 73, 87, 90; Bobbi Sykes, 'Black Women in Australia: A History', Jan Mercer ed., The Other Half: women in Australian society Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1975, pp. 313-321.
8. Lois Dean ed., Minnie: memoirs of a squatter's daughter. By Mary Emily Susannah Brewer, selfpublished, 2005, p. 439. Dean had been given copies of the first two journals by the family and presented readings from them in a 20-episode series on ABC Radio Southeast in 2000, and such was the positive reaction of audiences that she proceeded to publish the entire journals.
9. Research for this article is based upon a close and comparative reading of the original journals, the typescript, and Dean's edited version.
10. Dean, Minnie, pp. 5-6; and personal communication (telephone) with Victoria Haskins, 21 January 2009.
11. Dean, Minnie, pp. 439-447.
12. Margaret Kiddle, Men of Yesterday: a social history of the Western District of Victoria, 1834-1890, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1962, pp. 119-120.
13. Dean, Minnie, pp. 218, 381.
14. 'Brewer Memoirs', Box 299/9 Book 2; Dean, Minnie, p. 193.
15. M. E. McGuire, 'The Legend of the Good Fella Missus', Aboriginal History, vol. 14, no. 2, 1990, pp. 124-151, 134. McGuire implies that this was a foil for her 'own sexual and economic repression'.
16. Hugh McCrae, ed., Georgiana's Journal: Melbourne 1841-1865, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1966, (first published in 1934), p. 224.
17. Jane de Falbe ed., My dear Miss Macarthur: the recollections of Emmeline Maria Macarthur (1828-1911), Kenthurst, Qld: Kangaroo Press, 1988, p. 52.
18. McCrae, Georgiana's Journal, p. 224. McCrae then concluded her account with some 'not very good verses' in her own hand that her editor, her grandson, chose not to reproduce.
19. 'Brewer Memoirs', Box 299/9 Book 2; Dean, Minnie, p. 193.
20. 'Brewer Memoirs', Box 299/9 Book 2.
21. McGuire, 'The Legend of the Good Fella Missus', p. 143.
22. Dean, Minnie, p. 183. And at this point in fact she went on to reminisce about her father's 'black boy', and then, more bitterly, of how the South Australian government had refused to allow 'her
people' to take his widow and his daughter, her younger brother's nursemaid, back with them to Victoria when they left.
23. Dean, Minnie, p. 144.
24. Dean, Minnie, p. 187.
25. Dean, Minnie, pp. 279-81.
26. See also Dean, Minnie, p. 237: faced with an emergency with a sick child when the Brewers were visiting a neighbouring station, Minnie waited till 'it began to show light' before going to 'the blacks' camp' to ask one of the men there to take a note to the Mrs. At another point Minnie Brewer described how the Aboriginal women and children 'used to come into the garden and watch' when the family danced on the verandah in the evenings: Dean, Minnie, p. 219.
27. Dean, Minnie, p. 224.
28. Dean, Minnie, p. 277.
29. Mrs Aeneas Gunn, The Little Black Princess of the Never-Never, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens, 1924, (first published in 1905), pp. 39-43.
30. Dean, Minnie, p. 192.
31. Dean, Minnie, p. 224.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. See Ken Inglis's review of the literature on 'mateship' in Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart Macintyre, eds, The Oxford Companion to Australian History, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 416-418.
35. A. Harris, Settlers and Convicts, p. 326, quoted in C. M. H. Clark, ed., Select Documents in Australian History 1788-1850, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1950, p. 438.
36. Transcript of Brewer Memoirs, Box 299/10 (c), Book 3.
37. Dean, Minnie, p. 266.
38. Dean, Minnie, p. 290.
39. 'Brewer Memoirs', Book 3, Box 299/10 (c).
40. Dean, Minnie, p. 221.
41. Ibid.
42. 'Brewer Memoirs', Book 4, Box 299/10 (d); Dean, Minnie, p. 285
43. 'Brewer Memoirs', Book 3, Box 299/10 (c).
44. Dean, Minnie, p. 223. 45 Book 3, Box 299/10 (c)
45. Transcript of Brewer Memoirs, Box 299/10 (c), Book 3. See Dean, Minnie, p. 248.
46. For example, see Inga Clendinnen, 'Spearing the Governor', Australian Historical Studies, vol. 33, no. 118, 2002, pp. 157-174.
47. For a discussion of the issue of infanticide and colonial Aboriginal women's agency, see Lynette Russell, '"Dirty Domestics and Worse Cooks": Aboriginal women's agency and domestic frontiers, Southern Australia, 1800-1850', Frontiers, vol. 28, nos 1 & 2, 2007, pp. 18-46.
48. Dean, Minnie, pp. 254-6, 266. Minnie told the mother that if she insisted on taking the baby back, and the baby became ill, she, Minnie, would 'have nothing more to do with [the baby]'. The Mrs 'knew very well when I said a thing I meant it' (like Amelia, perhaps) '... so I heard no more about it.' However, when the Mrs asked to take her next-born child, a boy, 'off her hands', Minnie refused: 'I would have nothing to do with him, said Burri was quite enough', Dean, Minnie, p. 292.
49. Years later, living in Melbourne, Minnie would take on the care of the infant son of a sick servant girl named Christine; after that child died tragically of diphtheria, Minnie 'adopted' the boy she raised to adulthood, according to her one of a pair of illegitimate twins born to Christine's sister (the sisters having boarded with her for a time). Dean, Minnie, pp. 342-3, 345, 361, 387, 401-402.
50. Dean, Minnie, p. 255.
51. Transcript of Brewer Memoirs, Box 299/10 (c), Book 3.
52. Dean, Minnie, p. 317.
53. Ibid.
54. See Dean, Minnie, p. 318. In the original memoirs, the story of Amelia's visit overlaps from the end of the fourth and into the fifth, the remaining two of six books of memoirs dealing with her life in Melbourne.
55. Dean, Minnie, p. 316.
56. Dean, Minnie, p. 317.
57. Transcript of Brewer Memoirs, Box 299/10 (e), Book 5.
58. Ibid.
59. Ibid.
60. Peter Read, A Hundred Years War: the Wiradjuri people and the state, Sydney: Pergamon Press, 1988, p. 37. Ironically, an Aboriginal reserve would be set up many decades later near the site of Merri Merrigal, in 1947. This was the Murrin Bridge reserve (still functioning as an Aboriginal community today), near the township of Lake Cargellico, which would accommodate the people formerly housed at Menindee mission station, having been forcibly moved there in 1933 from their various ancestral lands in the Cobar and Menindee Lakes area of NSW. See Bernard Tiernay, 'Summary History of Murrin Bridge' (extract from paper, TAFE Lake Cargellico), website for the Murrin Bridge Aboriginal Vineyard,, accessed 15 April 2009.
61. See Beverley Gulambali Elphick and Don Elphick, The Camp of Mercy: an historical and biographical record of the Warangesda Aboriginal Mission/Station, Canberra: Gulambali Aboriginal Research, 2004. There is no surviving record of her arrival on the station but the records indicate that some of her children (including the son who was a baby in 1874, but not Percy) were there and presumably herself also.
62. 'Brewer Memoirs', Box 299/9 Book 2.

Fishers and Farmers

Special thanks to the Gunditjmara community for support of our research project at Lake Condah. Permission to reproduce copies of drawings from the George Augustus Robinson journals was kindly provided by the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Access to the Robinson journals was enabled by Edward Evesterberg and Kevin Leamon. Kara Rasmanis (School of Geography & Environmental Science, Monash University) drafted Figure 19. Special thanks for permissions to reproduce images in Figure 1 (Richard Cornish), Figures 2 to 4 (Jed MacDonald), Figure 14 (South Australia Museum and Keryn Walshe), Figures 17 and 18 (Aboriginal Affairs Victoria), and Figure 22 (Peter Kershaw).
1. Thomas Worsnop, The Prehistoric Arts, Manufactures, Works, Weapons, etc., of the Aborigines of Australia, Adelaide: Government Printer, 1897, p. 105.
2. John W. Gregory, 'The antiquity of Man in Victoria', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 1904, no. 17, p. 141.
3. Cited in Bain Attwood, 'Making history: imagining Aborigines and Australia', in T. Bonyhady and T. Griffiths, eds, Prehistory to Politics: John Mulvaney, the Humanities and the public intellectual, Carlton South, Vic.: University of Melbourne Press, 1996, p. 102.
4. C. M. H. Clark, A History of Australia. Volume 1, From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1962, p. 4. For broader critical discussion of this topic, see Tom Griffiths, Hunters and Collectors: the antiquarian imagination in Australia, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1996; Tom Griffiths, 'In search of Australian antiquity', in Bonyhady and Griffiths, Prehistory to Politics, pp. 42-62.
5. Stuart Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 2004.
6. John Mulvaney, 'The Australian Aborigines 1606-1929: option and fieldwork', Historical Studies Australia and New Zealand, 1958, vol. 8, no. 30, pp. 131-51, 297-314; John Mulvaney, The Prehistory of Australia, New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969; John Mulvaney, 'Developing a perspective on mankind: the study of prehistory', in D. Dufty, G. Harman and K. Swan, eds, Historians at Work: investigating and recreating the past, Sydney: Hicks Smith and Sons, 1973. For an excellent overview of Mulvaney's contribution to Aboriginal historiography, see Attwood, 'Making history, imagining Aborigines and Australia', pp. 98-116. For an extended discussion of how the theoretical framework of social evolutionism was central to racist representations of Aboriginal Australians as primitive and unevolved, see Ian J. McNiven and Lynette Russell, Appropriated Pasts: Indigenous peoples and the colonial culture of Archaeology, Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press, 2005.
7. John Mulvaney, 'A new time machine', Twentieth Century, 1952, pp. 16-23; Mulvaney, The Prehistory of Australia.
8. For an extended discussion of the problematic nature of the term 'prehistory', see McNiven and Russell, Appropriated Pasts, pp. 218-222.
9. John Mulvaney, 'Discovering Man's place in nature', Prehistory and Heritage: the writings of John Mulvaney, Occasional Papers in Prehistory, Canberra, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1990, p. 112.
10. Rhys Jones, 'Fire-stick farming', Australian Natural History, no. 16, 1969, pp. 224-228.
11. Geoffrey Blainey, Triumph of the Nomads: a history of ancient Australia, South Melbourne, Vic.: Macmillan, 1975.
12. Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia, Chapter 1: Beginnings, pp. 1-15.
13. Nicholas Thomas, 'Social theory, ecology and epistemology: theoretical issues in Australian prehistory', Mankind, no. 13, pp. 165-177.
14. For an extended discussion on the development of a socially-oriented approach to Australian archaeology, see Ian J. McNiven, Bruno David and Bryce Barker, 'The social archaeology of Indigenous Australia', in Bruno David, Bryce Barker and Ian J. McNiven, The Social Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Societies, Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2006, pp. 2-19.
15. For a detailed discussion of the tenets of partnership research between Indigenous communities and archaeologists, see McNiven and Russell, Appropriated Pasts, Chap. 8.
17. Heather Builth, 'Gunditjmara environmental management: the development of a fisher-gathererhunter society in temperate Australia', in J. Kim, C. Grier and J. Uchiyama, eds, Beyond Affluent Foragers, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006; Lake Condah Aboriginal Education Committee and Puunyart, Memories Last Forever, Abbotsford, Vic.: Aboriginal Histories Programme, 1988; Merryl K. Robson, Keeping Culture Alive, Hamilton, Vic.: Hamilton City Council, 1986; Vanda Savill, Dear Friends, Lake Condah Mission, Etc., Hamilton, Vic.: Kalprint Graphics, 1976.
18. Phillip Ruge, Lake Condah Water Restoration Business Plan, 2004. Lake Condah Sustainable Development Project; Christopher Gippel, Phil Macumber, Geoff Fisher, Lance Lloyd and Marcus Cooling, Lake Condah Water Restoration Project Hydrological Feasibility Study, 2006. Fluvial Systems Pty Ltd, Stockton. Glenelg-Hopkins Catchment Management Authority, Hamilton; Lachlan J. McKinnon, Shortfinned Eel Harvest Capacity of the Budj Bim Landscape, 2007. Final Report to Winda Mara Aboriginal Corporation. Audentes Investments; G.W. Carr, D. Frood, N. R. Roberts, N. Rosengren, Mt. Eccles Lava Flow Botanical Management Plan: Literature Review, 2006. Victoria: Ecology Australia; David Crook, Jed Macdonald, Chris Belcher, Damien O'Mahony, David Dawson, Danny Lovett, Adam Walker and Lucas Bannam, Lake Condah Restoration Project: Biodiversity Assessment, 2008. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report Series No. 180. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria; GHD Pty Ltd,
Lake Condah Restoration Project Proposed Weir: Geotechnical Investigation, 2008. Report by Coffey Geotechnics Pty Ltd, Mile End, South Australia; Ian J. McNiven, Lake Condah Restoration Weir Installation: Cultural Heritage Management Plan, 2008. Report to Dept. of Sustainability & Environment, Portland, Victoria; Christopher J. Gippel, B. G. Anderson, G. Kerr, Lance Lloyd, and Marcus Cooling, Environmental Water Requirements of Darlot Creek and Lake Condah: Issues Paper, 2008. Fluvial Systems Pty Ltd, Stockton. Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority, Hamilton; Christopher J. Gippel, B. G. Anderson, Marcus Cooling, Lance Lloyd and G. Kerr, Environmental Water Requirements of Darlot Creek and Lake Condah: Final Recommendations, 2008. Fluvial Systems Pty Ltd, Stockton. Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority, Hamilton; Chris Johnston, Lake Condah Restoration Conservation Management Plan, 2008. Report to Windamara Aboriginal Corporation. Melbourne: Context; Lake Condah Water Restoration Project: Weir Construction Tender Document, 2009. Victoria: Dept of Sustainability and Environment.
19. Ian J. McNiven, 'Aboriginal settlement of the saline lake and volcanic landscapes of Corangamite Basin, Western Victoria', The Artefact, no. 21, 1998, pp. 63-94; Thomas Learmonth, 1853 letter quoted in T. F. Bride, ed., Letters from Victorian Pioneers, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1898, p. 40.
20. James Dawson, Australian Aborigines: the languages and customs of several tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, Melbourne: George Robertson, 1881, p. 19.
21. The importance of these historical sources has been long-recognised by researchers – e.g. Peter J. F. Coutts, Rudy K. Frank and Phil Hughes, Aboriginal Engineers of the Western District, Victoria, Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey, no. 7, 1978; Jan Critchett, A 'Distant Field of Murder': Western District frontiers 1834-1848, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1990; Harry Lourandos, 'Change or stability? Hydraulics, hunter-gatherers and population in temperate Australia', World Archaeology, no. 11, 1980, pp. 245-266; Harry Lourandos, 'Swamp managers of southwestern Victoria', in D. J. Mulvaney and J. P. White, eds, Australians to 1788, Broadway, NSW: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, 1987, pp. 292-307; Gary Presland, 'The journals of George Augustus Robinson', The La Trobe Library Journal, no. 43, 1989, pp. 9-12; Elizabeth Williams, Complex Hunter-Gatherers: a late Holocene example from Temperate Australia, BAR International Series no. 423, 1988.
22. Robinson's original journals are held in the Mitchell Collection of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney. Microfilm copies of the journals are held by the State Library of Victoria. Published transcriptions of the journals have been made by: Ian D. Clark, ed., The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, Volume Two: 1 October 184031 August 1841, Melbourne: Heritage Matters, 1998; Gary Presland, ed., Journals of George Augustus Robinson MarchMay 1841, Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey 6, Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation, 1977; and Gary Presland, ed., Journals of G. A. Robinson May to August 1841, Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey, no. 11, Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation, 1980. Quotes from Robinson's journals used in this paper are based primarily on Clark's transcriptions modified in a few places following McNiven's examination of Robinson's original journals.
23. Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime: a hypothetical history, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 135.
24. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, pp. 94-95.
25. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 141.
26. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 94.
27. Thomas 1858 cited in Williams, Complex Hunter-Gatherers, p. 64.
28. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 95.
29. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 161.
30. Lourandos, 'Swamp managers of southwestern Victoria', p. 300.
31. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 94.
32. Ibid, p. 94.
33. Alfred S. Kenyon, 'The Aboriginal Protectorate of Port Phillip: Report of an Expedition to the Aboriginal Tribes of the Western Interior by the Chief Protector, George Augustus Robinson', Victorian Historical Magazine, vol. 12, no. 47, 1928, p. 146.
34. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, pp. 94-95.
35. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 145.
36. Ibid, pp. 162-163; Kenyon, 'The Aboriginal Protectorate of Port Phillip', p. 147.
37. Robinson originally wrote 'hollow' but crossed it out and replaced it with 'grove'.
38. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 163.
39. Kenyon, 'The Aboriginal Protectorate of Port Phillip', p. 157.
40. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 306.
41. Ibid, p. 308.
42. Ibid, p. 321.
43. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 94.
44. Anne Clarke, Lake Condah Project Aboriginal Archaeology Resource Inventory, Occasional Report no. 36, Melbourne: Victoria Archaeological Survey, Department of Conservation and Environment, 1991; Coutts et. al., Aboriginal Engineers of the Western District, Victoria; Nora van Waarden and Bob Wilson, 'Developing a hydrological model of the Lake Condah fish traps in western Victoria using GIS', in I. Johnson, ed., Methods in the Mountains, Sydney: Sydney University Archaeological Methods Series no. 2, Archaeological Computing Laboratory, Department of Prehistoric and Historical Archaeology, The University of Sydney, 1994, pp. 81-90.
45. Peter Coutts, Dan Witter and Deborah Parsons, 'Impact of European settlement on Aboriginal society in western Victoria', Search, no. 8, 1977, p. 197.
46. van Waarden and Wilson, 'Developing a hydrological model of the Lake Condah fish traps'.
47. Heather Builth, 'Mt Eccles lava flow and the Gunditjmara connection: a landform for all seasons', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, no. 116, 2004, pp. 163-182; Builth, 'Gunditjmara environmental management'.
48. Coutts et. al., Aboriginal Engineers of the Western District, Victoria, p. 28.
49. Heather Builth, The Archaeology and Socioeconomy of the Gunditjmara: A Landscape Analysis from Southwest Victoria, Australia', Unpublished PhD thesis, Adelaide, Flinders University, 2002, pp. 242-244; Builth, 'Mt Eccles lava flow', p. 175.
50. Builth, The Archaeology and Socioeconomy of the Gunditjmara, p. 253.
51. Ibid.
52. Lourandos, 'Change or stability?', pp. 253-254.
53. Ibid, p. 254.
54. Lourandos, 'Swamp managers of southwestern Victoria', p. 306.
55. Ibid, p. 307.
56. Noel G. Butlin, Our Original Aggression: Aboriginal populations of Southeastern Australia 1788-1850, Sydney: George Allen & Unwin, 1983, p. 126.
57. Coutts et. al., Aboriginal Engineers of the Western District, Victoria; Lourandos, 'Change or stability?'; Harry Lourandos, 'Intensification: a late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological sequence from southwestern Victoria', Archaeology in Oceania, no. 18, 1983, pp. 81-94; Harry Lourandos, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: new perspectives in Australian prehistory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997; Williams, Complex Hunter-Gatherers.
58. Caroline F. M. Bird and David Frankel, 'Chronology and explanation in western Victoria and south-east South Australia', Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 26, 1991, pp. 1-16.
59. Nineteenth century recordings of this site were brought to our attention by Tom Richards. See Steve Hemming, 'An Aboriginal fish trap from Lake Condah, Victoria', Journal of the Anthropological Society of South Australia, no. 23, 1985, pp. 2-6; Worsnop, The Prehistoric Arts, pp. 104-105.
60. Lesley Head, 'Using palaeoecology to date Aboriginal fishtraps at Lake Condah, Victoria', Archaeology in Oceania, no. 24, 1989, pp. 110-115.
61. Heather Builth, A. Peter Kershaw, Chris White, Anna Roach, Lee Hartney, Merna McKenzie, Tara Lewis and Geraldine Jacobsen, 'Environmental and cultural change on the Mt Eccles lava-flow landscapes of southwest Victoria, Australia', The Holocene, no. 18, 2008, pp. 413-424.
62. Ibid.
63. Donald R. Hill, A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, London: Routledge, 1996, p. 50.
64. Lourandos, 'Change or stability?', p. 255; Lourandos, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers, p. 221.
65. Beth Gott, 'Aboriginal fire management in south-eastern Australia: aims and frequency', Journal of Biogeography, no. 32, 2005, pp. 1203-1208; Jones, 'Fire-stick farming'.
66. Builth, 'Mt Eccles lava flow'; Lourandos, 'Change or stability?'; Paul Humphries, 'Historical Indigenous use of aquatic resources in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, and its implications for river management', Ecological Management & Restoration, no. 8, 2007, pp. 106-113; Ian J. McNiven, 'Inclusions, exclusions, transitions: Torres Strait Islander constructed landscapes over the past 4000 years, northeast Australia', The Holocene, no. 18, 2008, pp. 449-462.
67. Lesley Head, Second Nature: the history and implications of Australia as Aboriginal landscape, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2000, provides an excellent summary and discussion of the technical and philosophical implications of long-term Aboriginal landscape modification for modern environmental management.
68. Builth, The Archaeology and Socioeconomy of the Gunditjmara; Builth, 'Gunditjmara environmental management'.
69. Ritual dimensions of water management and fishing are rarely explored by archaeologists. For an example of the ritual archaeology of Aboriginal marine environments, see Ian J. McNiven, 'Saltwater People: Spiritscapes, maritime rituals and the archaeology of Australian indigenous seascapes', World Archaeology, no. 35, 2003, pp. 329-49.
70. For research approaches that emphasise environmental change, see Bird and Frankel, 'Chronology and explanation in western Victoria' and Builth et. al., 'Environmental and cultural change'. For research approaches that emphasise an interplay of environmental and social factors, see Lourandos 'Change or stability?', Lourandos, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers; McNiven, 'Aboriginal settlement of the saline lake', and Williams, Complex Hunter-Gatherers.
71. All Robinson journal images used in this paper have been cleaned-up in Photoshop® such that paper colourations and written text surrounding images have been erased and the ink drawings transformed into a grayscale.

Collaborating: photographs of Koories in the State Library of Victoria

Jane Lydon wishes to thank staff of the State Library of Victoria who have supported her research in their collections over more than a decade, including Dianne Reilly (former La Trobe Librarian), Shane Carmody, Des Cowley, and Gerard Hayes. She also thanks Genevieve Grieves for discussions about Picturing the Old People and for use of the image on page 114. We all thank our anonymous reviewer for comments. Madeleine Say wishes to second Jane Lydon in her acknowledgements, particularly to
Dr Dianne Reilly and Sari Braithwaite, and thanks her fellow authors for their discussion and support while constructing this article.
Maxine Briggs would like to add her acknowledgements: to Ms Nellie Moore for giving us permission to publish her image, the Wurundjerri Council of Elders for their generosity of spirit in their work with the SLV, Mr. Gratten Mullet and the Krowathunkooloong Keeping Place for their support with the SLV's project Photographing Gippsland Elders, Mr Bart Willoughby for giving his permission for use of his creative cultural concept 'From My Eyes', Mr Hartley Briggs, Cultural Officer of the Goulburn River Clans Men's Group for his advice on Koori cultural sensitivity and most importantly I would like to acknowledge the Victorian Aboriginal ancestors whose images have been published in this article.
1. For an overview see Michael Green and Phil Gordon, 'Repatriation: Australian Perspectives', in Jane Lydon and Uzma Rizv, eds, Handbook on Postcolonialism and Archaeology, Walnut Creek, California: LeftCoast Press, 2009. While an emergent international literature examines the process of returning photographs and its impact upon descendant communities, no wide-ranging formal analysis of returning Australian photographs exists: e.g., for Canada see Alison K. Brown, and Laura Peers, with members of the Kainai Nation. 'Pictures bring us messages': Sinaakssiiksi aohtsimaahpihkookiyaawa: photographs and histories from the Kainai Nation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006; David A. Smith 'From Nunavut to Micronesia: Feedback and Description, Visual Repatriation and Online Photographs of Indigenous Peoples', Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, vol. 3, no. 1, 2008; and for Papua New Guinea see Joshua Bell, 'Losing the forest but not the stories in the trees: contemporary understandings of F. E. Williams's 1922 photographs of the Purari Delta', Journal of Pacific History 41, no. 2, 2006, pp.191-206.
2. This four year project is funded by the Australian Research Council and the State Library of Victoria. For more detail see the project website at cais/research/visual-histories/
3. G. Batchen, Each Wild Idea: writing, photography, history. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2001. Although, as Batchen notes, it remains to account for the 'extraordinary ... amount of attention paid to [Indigenous people] and the relatively varied ways in which they are portrayed,' p. 34.
4. A. Galbally and A. Inglis, The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and 1860s, Parkville, Vic.: University of Melbourne Museum of Art, 1992; Ann Galbally, Redmond Barry: an Anglo-Irish Australian, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1995.
5. P. Fox, 'The Intercolonial Exhibition (1866): representing the colony of Victoria', History of Photography, vol. 23, no. 2, 1999, pp. 174-80; Gerard Hayes, 'London, Paris, Philadelphia ... Victoria at the Great Exhibitions', La Trobe Journal, no. 56, Spring, 1995, pp. 2-5; Des Cowley, 'Redeeming an Obligation: Aboriginal culture at the 1866 Exhibition', La Trobe Journal, no. 73, Autumn, 2004, pp. 112-120; Jane Lydon, Eye Contact: photographing Indigenous Australians, Durham: Duke University Press. 2005.
6. Two views of the mission and text giving the title and details of the photographer, Charles Walter, complete the arrangement. Other copies of these portraits are known, most notably in the Green album in the Melbourne Museum collection. For a discussion of the panel's differing effects and uses see John Morton, 'Seeing Eye to Eye: Photography and the Return of the Native in Aboriginal Australia', Arena Journal, no. 27, 2006, pp. 47-59. For Walter's botanical career see L. Gillbank, 'Charles Walter: collector of images and plants in East Gippsland', Gippsland Heritage Journal, no. 13, 1992, pp. 3-10.
7. Christine Downer, 'Pictures in Victoria - images as records in the La Trobe Picture collection.' La Trobe Journal no. 50, 1992, pp. 12-19; Michael Galimany, 'Pictures', La Trobe Journal, no. 56, Spring,
1995, pp. 26-27.
8. See for example, Nicholas Mirzoeff, An Introduction to Visual Culture, London: Routledge, 1999; Anne-Marie Willis, Picturing Australia: a history of photography, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1988.
9. J. Boddington, and K. Otto, Fred Kruger 18311888, Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1983; P. Fox, 'Kruger, Johan Friedrich Carl (Fred)', in J. Kerr, ed. The Dictionary of Australian Artists: painters, sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 437–39 (also available on-line at, S. Jones, J. W. Lindt, Master Photographer, Melbourne: Currey O'Neil Ross for the Library Council of Victoria, 1985; K. Orchard, 'J. W. Lindt's Australian Aboriginals (1873-74)', History of Photography, vol. 23, no. 2, 1999, pp. 163–70; B. Croft, 'Laying Ghosts to Rest', Portraits of Oceania, Sydney: The Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997, pp. 8-14; G. C. Bolton, Richard Daintree: a photographic memoir, Brisbane: Jacaranda, 1965; D. Reilly, and J. Carew, Sun Pictures of Victoria: the Fauchery-Daintree Collection, 1858, Melbourne: Currey O'Neil Ross Pty Ltd on behalf of the Library Council of Victoria, Melbourne, 1983; D. Reilly, 'Antoine Fauchery, 18231861: photographer and journalist par excellence' La Trobe Library Journal, no. 33, April, 1984, pp. 1–5; D. Millar, Nicholas John Caire: photographer 18371918, Monograph on Australian Photographic History No. 2, Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1980; A. Pitkethly and D. Pitkethly, N. J. Caire: landscape photographer, Rosanna, Vic.: A. and D. Pitkethly, 1988.
11. For further information see Elizabeth Willis, '"People undergoing great change": John Hunter Kerr's photographs of Indigenous people at Fernyhurst, Victoria, 1850s'. La Trobe Journal, no. 76, Spring, 2005, pp. 49–70; Madeleine Say, 'John Hunter Kerr: photographer', La Trobe Journal, no. 76, Spring, 2005, pp. 71–76.
12. I. Crombie, 'Australia Felix: Douglas T. Kilburn's Daguerrotype of Victorian Aborigines, 1847', Art Bulletin of Victoria, no. 32, 1991, pp. 21–31; I. Crombie, 'The Sorcerer's Machine: a photographic portrait by Douglas Kilburn, 1847', Art Bulletin of Victoria, no. 40, 1999, pp. 7 –12; G. Newton, Shades of Light: photography and Australia 1839-1988, Canberra: Australian National Gallery & Collins Australia with assistance from Kodak, 1988, p. 12. No images by Kilburn are currently held in the State Library collection.
15. See the Australian Copyright Council website, Information Sheet G11 'Photographers and Copyright'. Available on-line at
16. P. Taylor, ed., After 200 Years: photographic essays of Aboriginal and Islander Australia today, Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1988. For discussion of Aboriginal uses of photographs, see, for example, Michael Aird, 'Growing up with Aborigines' in Photography's Other Histories, edited by Christopher Pinney and Nicholas Peterson, Durham: Duke University Press, 2003; M. Aird, Brisbane Blacks, Southport: Keeaira Press, 2001; Sylvia Kleinert, 'Aboriginality in the city: re-reading Koorie photographs', Aboriginal History, vol. 30, 2006, pp. 69–94; Heather Goodall, 'Karroo: Mates' – communities reclaim their images', Aboriginal History, vol. 30, 2006, pp. 48-66; Roslyn Poignant, 'About friendship: about trade: about photographs.' Voices vol. 4, no. 4, 1994, pp. 55-70; Benjamin R. Smith, 'Images, selves, and the visual record: photography and ethnographic complexity in central Cape York Peninsula', Social Analysis (Adelaide), vol. 47, no. 3, 2003, pp. 8– 26; E. Edwards, 'Photographs and the Sound of History' Visual Anthropology Review vol. 21, nos. 12, 2006, pp. 27-46.
17. G. Macdonald, 'Photos in Wiradjuri Biscuit Tins: negotiating relatedness and validating colonial histories', Oceania, vol. 73, no. 4, 2003, 225–42, 226.
18. Lydon, Eye Contact, pp. 214–47.
19. See for example K. Gellatly, Re-Take: contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander photography, Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 1998; Anne Marsh, The Darkroom: photography and the theatre of desire, South Melbourne, Vic.: Macmillan, 2003; Helen Ennis, Photography and Australia, London: Reaktion Books, 2007; Wendy Garden, '"Re-membering the archive" Nineteenth century photography and contemporary practice', Paper presented to Visual Cultures and Colonialism Conference, Melbourne, May 2008; Jeanette Hoorn, 'Reviewing Strange Fruit: Memory and Testimony in Julie Dowling's Portraits', Paper presented to Visual Cultures and Colonialism Conference, Melbourne, May 2008.
20. A. Marsh, 'Leah King-Smith and the Nineteenth-century Archive', History of Photography, vol. 23, no. 2, 1999, pp. 114-17, quote p. 117; Christine Downer, 'Pictures in Victoria – images as records in the La Trobe Picture collection.' La Trobe Library Journal no. 50, 1992, pp. 12-19.
21. Eg., K. Orchard, 'J. W. Lindt's Australian Aboriginals (1873-74)', History of Photography, vol. 23, no. 2, 1999, pp. 163-70.
22. Personal communication to Jane Lydon, Genevieve Grieves, 12 January 2006.
25. Judith Proctor Wiseman and Lindy Allen, eds, Thomson Time: Arnhem Land in the 1930s, a photographic essay, Melbourne: Museum of Victoria, 1996; Lindy Allen, 'A Photographer of Brilliance', in Donald Thomson: the man and scholar edited by B. Rigsby and N. Peterson, Canberra: Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, 2005; Phillip Batty, Lindy Allen and John Morton, The Photographs of Baldwin Spencer. Carlton, Vic.: The Miegunyah Press, 2007.
23. J. Anderson, Access and Control of Indigenous Knowledge in Libraries and Archives: ownership and future use, Columbia University, New York: American Library Association and The MacArthur Foundation, Columbia University, 2005.
24. This is something that could be explored further within the reference group in order to develop the process and to seek funding.

Possum Skins Cloaks

I would like to thank Lindy Allen and Regional Arts Victoria for access to the journals and photographs of the Possum Skin Cloak Project. I would also like to thank the indigenous artists Lisa Kennedy (Braiakaulung and Brataualung), Maureen Reyland (Muthi Muthi), Thomas Day (Dharwurd Wurrung), Mandy Nicholson (Woi wurrung) and Kevin Atkinson(Bangarang) who gave their permission for me to quote from their Possum Skin Cloak journals and Michael Carver for his permission to use the photographs of the possum skin cloaks. I thank Maree Clarke, Lee Darroch and Treahna Hamm for permission to photograph the glass panels at the Oxfam offices in Carlton and for permission to use these images of their work. I thank the Koorie Heritage Trust for access to the painting and notes by Jenny Murray Jones.
1. F. Blacklock, 'National Quilt Register: Aboriginal skin cloaks', at (accessed 22 February 2007).
2. A. J. Reynolds, Wrapped in a Possum Skin Cloak: the Tooloyn Koortakay Collection in the National Museum of Australia, Canberra: National Museum of Australia Press, 2005.
3. Ibid.
4. E. S. Casey, Getting Back Into Place: toward a renewed understanding of the place-world, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.
5. Reynolds, p. 33.
6. K. H. Basso, 'Wisdom Sits in Places: notes on a Western Apache landscape,' in Senses of Place edited by K. H. Basso and S. Feld, New Mexico: School of American Research Press, 1996.
7. W. E. H. Stanner, 'The Dreaming (1953)' in White Man got No Dreaming: essays, 1938-1973 Canberra: ANU Press, 1979, pp. 23-40.
8. M. Langton, 'The Edge of the Sacred, and the Edge of Death' in Inscribed Landscapes: marking and making place, edited by B. David and M. Wilson, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002.
9. Ibid, p. 263.
10. Ibid, p.18.
11. Ibid, pp. 18-19.
12. Ibid, p. 260.
13. See also D. B. Rose, Nourishing Terrains: Australian Aboriginal view of landscape and wilderness, Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission, 1996.
14. David, B. and M. Wilson,'Re-Reading the Landscape: Place and Identity in NE Australia During the Late Holocene', Cambridge Archaeological Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, 1991, pp. 163-188.
15. A. Kearney and J. Bradley, 'Landscapes with shadows of once living people' in The Social Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Societies, edited B. David, B. Barker and I. McNiven Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2006, p. 196.
16. Reynolds, p. 2.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. National Museum of Australia 2007(a), showing/tooloyn_koortakay_and_were_here/ (accessed 15 March 2007).
20. Regional Arts Victoria.
21. Melbourne Museum 2006.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. Melbourne Museum 2006.
25. Janina Harding, 2007, Indigenous Arts Program Manager, City of Melbourne, personal communication.
26. Ibid.
27. I. McBryde, 'Exchange in South Eastern Australia: an ethnohistorical perspective', Aboriginal History, vol. 8, nos. 1-2, 1984, pp. 132-153.
28. 'Yorta Yorta Journal', Regional Arts Victoria 2006, unpublished.
29. 'Bangerang Journal', Regional Arts Victoria 2006, unpublished.
30. Melbourne Museum, 2006.
31. Ibid.
32. R. Frankland, Tooloyn Koortakay: A film featuring Vicki Couzens, Debra Couzens, Lee Darroch and Treahna Hamm courtesy of the National Museum of Australia, Golden Seahorse Productions in association with the National Museum of Australia, 2004.
33. Reynolds, p. 42.
34. 'Muthi Muthi Journal', Regional Arts Victoria 2006, unpublished.
35. Kearney and Bradley, op. cit.
36. F. Magowan, 'Crying to remember: reproducing personhood and community' in Telling Stories: Indigenous history and memory in Australia and New Zealand edited by Bain Attwood and Fiona Magowan, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2001.
37. 'Woi Wurrung Journal', Regional Arts Victoria 2006, unpublished.
38. 'Dhauwurd Wurrung Journal', Regional Arts Victoria 2006, unpublished.
39. Kearney and Bradley.
40. Magowan, op. cit.
41. Langton, op. cit.
42. Koorie Heritage Trust 2004.
43. Melbourne News 2005.
44. Oxfam 2007.
45. Ibid.
46. Ibid.
47. 'Dhauwurd Wurrung Journal', unpublished.

At the Grass Roots of White Support

1. Henry Reynolds, A Whispering in our Hearts, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998.
2. Sue Taffe, Black and White Together. FCAATSI: The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2005.
3. M. B. Duberman, Paul Robeson, London: Bodley Head, 1989, p. 490.
4. Smoke Signals, May 1957.
5. Smoke Signals, July 1957.
6. One page of notes by Davey in Gordon Bryant Papers, National Library of Australia, courtesy of Sue Taffe.
7. Interview with Jan Richardson, Mount Eliza, 19 September 2008.
8. Sun (Melbourne), 25 August 1958.
9. Smoke Signals, April 1960.
10. Interview with Barry Christophers, Malvern East, 21 May 2008.
11. Doreen Ross to AAL, 31 July 1967, Aborigines' Advancement League papers, Australian Manuscript Collection, State Library of Victoria (hereafter AAL), box 74.
12. Vic Parson to all branch secretaries, 10 May 1968, AAL box 69.
13. Selma Millar to AAL, 21 August 1967, AAL box 75.
14. Sally Segal to AAL, 31 July 1967, AAL box 74.
15. Val Purchell to AAL, 11 August and 5 September 1967, AAL box 74.
16. Diana Dingley to AAL, 17 August 1968, box 74.
17. Barbara Gloe to AAL, 16 May 1968, AAL box 75.
18. Marc A. Musick and John Wilson, Volunteers: a social profile, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2008, p. 17.
19. Jone L Pearce, Volunteers: the organizational behaviour of unpaid workers, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 77.
20. Ibid, pp. 76-81.
21. Musick and Wilson, p. 22.
22. Interview with Peta Heywood, La Trobe University, 29 September 2008.
23. Pearce, pp. 69-70.
24. Musick and Wilson, p. 47.
25. Ibid, p. 109.
26. Pearce, p. 67.
27. Musick and Wilson, p. 147.
28. Lorna Lippmann, 'Who Belongs to the AAL?', Smoke Signals, December 1965.
29. Interview with Murray and Rosemary Hooper, Leopold, 29 November 2008.
30. Interview with Gwlad McLachlan, Belmont, 14 November 2008.
31. Interview with Val Tarrant, Black Rock, 24 October 2008.
32. Interview with Peta Heywood., La Trobe University, 29 November 2008.
33. Arthur Brotheridge to AAL, 7 October 1964; E. Cafarella to Brotheridge 15 October 1964; H. J. McLoughlin to E. Cafarella 19 November 1964, AAL box 69.
34. Stan Davey to Daphne Charles, secretary Aboriginal branch, 14 May 1968. AAL box 74.
35. P. Barker to AAL, 22 May 1970 and Bruce McGuinness to Mrs P. Barker 5 June 1970, AAL box 69.
36. Arthur Brotheridge to AAL 15 July 1962, AAL box 69.
37. Steven S. Cohn, Steven E. Barkan, and William A. Halteman, 'Dimensions of Participation in a Professional Social-Movement Organisation', Sociological Inquiry, vol. 73, no. 3, August 2003, pp. 311-337.
38. R. Broome, 'Doug Nicholls', entry in Australian Dictionary of Biography, forthcoming.
39. Smoke Signals, October 1968.
40. Copy of Rev. E. Vandermark to A. Buchanan 8 June 1960, AAL box 69.
41. Interview with Gwlad McLachlan, Belmont, 14 November 2008.
42. William Ralph to AAL, 8 August 1961, AAL box 69.
43. J. F. Allinson to S. D. Keer AAL, 25 June 1962, AAL box 69.
44. Robert Dunlop 18 July 1968 to Edith Bacon, and Bacon reply 29 July 1868, AAL box 74.
45. Arthur Brotheridge to AAL undated; Elizabeth Cafarella to Brotheridge, 19 July 1965, AAL box 69.
46. Arthur Brotheridge 15 July, 16 September and 9 November 1962, AAL box 69.
47. Leslie Coats to AAL, 25 February 1966, AAL box 75.
48. Smoke Signals, April 1960.
49. Smoke Signals, October 1959.
50. Greensborough branch fifth annual report June 1962, AAL box 69.
51. Interview with Gwlad McLachlan, Belmont, 14 November 2008.
52. Harold Newell to Stan Davey, 28 July 1968, AAL box 75.
53. Interview Jan Richardson, Mount Martha, 18 November 2008.
54. R. Broome and C. Manning, A Man of All Tribes: the life of Alick Jackomos, Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2006, pp. 124-128; Aboriginal branch meeting minutes 21 January, 1 February 1968, AAL box 74.
55. Age, 3 October 1969.
56. Age, 22 October 1969.
57. Anonymous, Victims or Victors: the story of the Aborigines Advancement League, Melbourne: Hyland House, 1985, chap. 7; Richard Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: a history since 1800, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005, pp. 336-37; Kathy Lothian, 'Seizing the Time: Australian Aborigines and the Influence of the Black Panther Party, 1969-1972', Journal of Black Studies, vol. 35, no. 4, 2005, pp. 179-200.
58. Sylvia Pridie to AAL, 23 September 1969, AAL, box 75.
59. Altona/Laverton branch to AAL, 12 September 1969, AAL box 75.
60. Wilma and David Evans to B. Silverwood, 6 October 1969, AAL box 75.
61. Dudley Wilson to AAL, November 1969, AAL box 75.
62. B. Glee to AAL, 4 November 1969, AAL box 75.
63. V. E. Maddern to AAL, 10 December 1969, AAL box 69.
64. Doreen Whitten to Bruce Silverwood, 23 October 1969, AAL box 69.
65. Murray Hooper to Bruce McGuinness no date, McGuinness reply, 24 April 1970, AAL box 69.
66. Victims or Victors?, p. 97.
67. Ibid, p. 99.
68. Geelong branch minute book meetings for 1972, in possession Gwlad McLachlan to be donated to the SLV collection. Interview with Gwlad McLachlan, Belmont, 14 November 2008.

Fighting for Lake Tyers

1. Edna Harrison to Mr Innis [Innes] 1 July 1961, Council for Aboriginal Rights (hereafter CAR), MS12913/7/3, State Library of Victoria (hereafter SLV).
2. Pauline Pickford to the Secretary, Tambo Shire, CAR, MS12913, box 7, SLV.
3. Report of the Aborigines' Welfare Board, Victoria, for the year ended 30 June 1963; 'Chance for Lake Tyers aboriginals is urged', Herald, 3 April 1963.
4. V. H. Arnold, Government Statist for Victoria, Victorian Yearbook 1961, no. 73, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Melbourne, 1961, p. 428.
5. 'Lake Tyers', transcribed from report dictated by Laurie Moffatt, September 1961, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
6. See Bain Attwood, Rights for Aborigines, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2003, St. Lucia: pp. 131-
135, and Joe McGinness, Son of Alyandabu: my fight for Aboriginal rights, Qld University of Queensland Press, 1991, pp. 58-66 for events in Darwin leading to the formation of the Council for Aboriginal Rights.
7. Resolution carried by the 15th Congress of the Communist Party of Austrtalia, Sydney, 7-10 May, 1948, 993, 592/48, State Records Office of Western Australia.
8. Shirley Andrews, 'The Australian Aborigines: A Summary of their Situation in all states in 1962', CAR, MS12913/3/4, SLV.
9. Minutes, CAR, 22 September 1960, MS12913/4/13, SLV.
10. Interview with Shirley Andrews, North Melbourne, 24 November 1999.
11. Shirley Andrews to Mary Bennett, 22 September 1961, MS12913/3/1, SLV
12. CAR correspondence register, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
13. Edna Harrison to Mr Inniss [Innes], 1 July 1961, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
14. Phone conversation with Pauline Pickford, 1 March 2009.
15. Ibid.
16. Terms of Reference for an Enquiry, submitted by the Australian Aborigines' League, 4 March 1948, CAR, MS12913/8/1, SLV.
17. Reported in the Age 28 January 1952.
18. Report of the Aborigines' Welfare Board, Victoria for the year ending 30 June, 1963.
19. CAR submission to the Enquiry, National Archives of Australia, Melbourne, B408, item 6.
20. Pauline Pickford, phone conversation, 27 February 2009.
21. 'Statement on the Lake Tyers Government Aboriginal Settlement', 26 February 1962, CAR, MS12913/7/8, SLV.
22. Conversation with Pauline Pickford, 27 February 2009.
23. Pauline Pickford to Laurie Moffatt, 6 June 1962, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
24. Pauline Pickford, 'Summary of the 8th annual conference of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders', 5 May 1965, CAR, MS12913/10/7, SLV.
25. 'Death of Vice-President', CAR annual report, 30 September 1966, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
26. Mrs A. E. Hayes, to Pauline Pickford, 6 October 1962, CAR, MS12913/7/7, SLV.
27. These letters are in the CAR, MS12913, box 7, SLV.
28. Gene Mobourne to Pauline Pickford, CAR, 18 September 1963, MS12913/7/6, SLV.
29. Steward Hood to Pauline Pickford, 11 April 1962, CAR, MS12913,/7/8, SLV.
30. Petition, 3 August 1962, CAR, MS12913/7/8, SLV.
31. Pauline Pickford to Campbell Turnbull, MLA, 16 October 1962, CAR, MS12913/7/8, SLV.
32. For example Lake Tyers residents signed a petition which was presented to visiting Government Members in January 1956, B408 item 6, National Archives of Australia, Melbourne. In 1963 a more detailed petition was presented. See Victorian Parliamentary Debates Legislative Assembly, 1962-63, vol 270, pp 3943-4.
33. Terms of Reference for an Enquiry, submitted by the Australian Aborigines' League, 4 March 1948, CAR, MS12913/8/1, SLV.
34. Pauline Pickford to Eric Onus, 2 February 1962, Correspondence register, CAR, MS12913/7/8, SLV.
35. By 1960 there were 19 branches in Victoria, Smoke Signals, April 1960.
36. Victorian Aborigines' Advancement League annual general meeting, 1 September 1962; 'Lake Tyers for Aborigines', nd but prior to 11 May 1962, Blackburn papers, MS11749/83, SLV.
37. Pauline Pickford to Stan Davey, 13 March 1963, CAR, MS2913/7/, SLV.
38. Resolutions of the 6th Annual General Meeting of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Canberra, 12-14 April 1963, CAR papers, MS12913/10/6, SLV.
39. Ibid.
40. Victorian Parliamentary Debates Legislative Assembly, 1962-63, vol. 270, pp. 3943-4.
41. Report of meeting, 22 May, 1963, CAR, MS12913/7/10 SLV.
42. The Aborigines' Welfare Board annual report for the year ending June 1963 states that the adult population of Lake Tyers was 39, and that there were 45 children, p. 15.
43. For example, between 7 May and 30 May 1963 20 letters were published on the Lake Tyers issue in the Age, at a time when it was unusual to get one letter in a week on an issue to do with Aboriginal affairs.
44. Victorian Parliamentary Debates Legislative Assembly, 1962-63, vol. 270, p, 2592.
45. Pastor Doug Nicholls, letter to the editor, 'Lake Tyers', Age, 13 May 1963.
46. Pastor Doug Nicholls, letter to the editor, 'Why Retain Lake Tyers', Age, 27 May 1963.
47. Letters to the editor, Age, 4 to 30 May; Mrs J. P. Radic, 'Lake Tyers Settlement', Age, 15 May 1963.
48. 1962-1963 Council for Aboriginal Rights annual report, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
49. Gene Mobourne to Pauline Pickford, 10 December 1963, CAR, MS12913/7/6, SLV.
50. Marjorie Oke to Pauline Pickford, 10 March 1964, CAR, MS12913/3/6, SLV.
51. Pauline Pickford interview, Melbourne, 29 October 2007.
52. Pauline Pickford to Eunice Gilmour, 17 April 1964, CAR, MS12913/3/6, SLV.
53. Pauline Pickford, Summary of the 7th Annual Conference of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Stait Islanders, 13 April 1964, CAR, MS12913/10/6, SLV.
54. 'Reports and Resolutions of the 8th Conference on Aboriginal Affairs', 16-18 April 1965, CAR, MS12913/10/7, SLV.
55. Stan Davey, 'A "State of the Nation" Report on Victorian Aboriginal Affairs', June 1967, CAR, MS12913/7/9, SLV.
56. Laurie Moffatt and Eugene Mobourne to Pauline Pickford, nd, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
57. Edna Harrison to Mr Inniss [Innes], 1 July 1961, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
58. '"Give us back our land": plea made', Morwell Advertiser, 6 September 1965.
59. Reported by Gene Mobourne in a letter to Pauline Pickford, 30 July 1963, CAR, MS12913/7/3, SLV.
60. 'Aborigines Petition Parlt. To Keep Lake Tyers', Age, 23 May 1963.
61. Stan Davey to the Editor, Advertiser, [Adelaide], 21 July 1963, Bryant Papers, MS8256, box 172, National Library of Australia.
62. 'Aborigines Petition Parlt. To Keep Lake Tyers', Age, 23 May 1963.
63. 'Don't Take the Lake', Bulletin, 27 March 1965, pp. 14–15.
64. '"Give us back our land:": plea made', Morwell Advertiser, 6 September 1965.
65. Charlie Carter,, accessed 21 May 2009.

A Guide to Government Acts, Reports and Regulations Relating to Indigenous Victorians

1. The text published here is actually a section of a more detailed guide on sources for the study of Indigenous Victorians that I am in the process of preparing for users of the State Library of Victoria.
2. These can be found in Historical records of Australia. Series 1: Governors dispatches to and from England (1788-1848), [Melbourne]: Commonwealth of Australia, 1914-1925.
3. Great Britain. Report from the Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements). House of Commons Papers. Reports from Committees, no. 425, vol. 7, p. 1, (1837), pp. 82-83.
4. Colonial Secretary's draft memorandum, 9 December 1836. Historical records of Victoria, vol. 2A, The Aborigines of Port Phillip 1835-1839, Melbourne: Victorian Government Printer, 1982, p. 161.
5. Ibid, p. 162.
6. G. M. Langhorne to Colonial Secretary 30 November 1838. Ibid, p.233
7. General Instructions to the Superintendent of Port Phillip 10 September 1839. Public Record Office of Victoria: VPRS 19/p, Unit 1, File 39/3. Viewed at:
8. Land and Emigration Commissioners to Lord Russell. 17 July 1840. Historical records of Australia, op. cit., Series 1, vol. 20, p. 738.
9. James Dredge, Diary, 19 November 1837, p. 234 cited in H. N. Nelson, 'Missionaries and Aborigines in the Port Phillip district', in Historical studies of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 12, no. 45, 1965, pp. 57-67.
10. New South Wales. Report from the Select Committee on the Aborigines and Protectorate. Sydney: NSW Government Printer, 1849, vol. 2, p. 428.
11. Ibid, p. 419.
12. Richard Broome, Aboriginal Victorians: a history since 1800, St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2005, p. 120.
13. Victorian Year Book 1903, Melbourne: Sands and McDougall, 1903, p. 26
14. Victoria. Report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Council on the Aborigines. Legislative Council Votes and Proceedings, 1858/9, vol. 1 D8, p. iv.
15. Ibid, p. v.
16. See, for example: Richard Broome, op.cit., pp. 235-257; Dianne Barwick, Rebellion at Coranderrk, Canberra: Aboriginal History Inc. Monograph 5, 1998.
17. Aboriginal Lands Act 1970 (Vic), no. 8044. For detail on legislation relating to land claims, see: The Laws of Australia, Melbourne: Law Book Co., 1993-2000, vol. 1, chapter 6, pp. 263-290.
18. Victoria. Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Council. Melbourne: Government Printer, 1869, pp. 1726-7, 1808.
19. Ibid, p. 1808.
20. Aborigines Protection Act 1869 (Vic), No. 349, p. 1.
21. Ibid, preamble.
22. Ibid, s. 2.1.
23. Ibid, s. 2. 2-3.
24. Ibid, s. 2.5.
25. Ibid, s. 5.
26. Ibid, s. 6.
27. Broome, op. cit., p. xxiv.
28. Aborigines Protection Act 1886 (Vic), No. 912, s. 4.1-5.
29. Ibid, s. 6.1-3.
30. Aborigines Act 1890 (Vic), no. 1059, s. 9.
31. Victoria Government Gazette 149, 4 October 1911, p. 4988.
32. Victoria Government Gazette 101, 1 December 1899, p. 4383.
33. Victoria Government Gazette 15, 24 February 1871, p. 338.
34. Victoria Government Gazette 43, 16 May 1890, pp. 1787-8.
35. Aborigines Act 1910 (Vic), no. 2255 s. 1.
36. Aborigines Act 1910 (Vic), no. 2255 s. 2.
37. Ibid, p. 3550, s. 25(c).
38. Victoria Government Gazette 172, 13 September 1916, p. 3549, s.12.
39. Phillip Pepper and Tess de Araugo, The Kurnai of Gippsland, Melbourne: Hyland House, 1985, p. 241.
40. Aborigines Act 1957 (Vic), no. 6086, s. 61.
41. Ibid, s. 3.1(f).
42. Ibid, s. 6.2(e).
43. Aboriginal Affairs Act 1967 (Vic), no. 7574. s. 11. 1 (g)
44. Ibid, s. 26.1 (a-q).
45. Ibid, s. 26.1 (c).
46. Victoria. Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1858/1859, vol. 2, D19, p. 183.
47. Victoria. Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Council. Select Committee of the Legislative Council on the Aborigines: Report, 1858/9. Melbourne: Government Printer, 1859, D8, p. vi.
48. Victoria. Royal Commission on the Aborigines. Report of the Commissioners. Melbourne: Government Printer, 1877, Victorian Parliamentary Papers, 1877, vol.3, no.76, p, xiii.
49. Ibid p xvi.
50. Victoria. Report of the Board appointed to inquire into and report upon, the present condition and management of the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, together with minutes of evidence, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1882, Victorian Parliamentary Papers, 1882, vol. 2, no. 5. p. 3.
51. Victoria. Report upon the operation of the Aborigines Act 1928 and regulations and orders made thereunder, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1957, Victorian Parliamentary Papers 1956/58, vol. 2, no. 18, p. 8.
52. Ibid, p. 13.
53. Ibid, p. 17.
54. Ibid, p. 21.

Notes on Contributors

Damein Bell is the Chairman of the Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Aboriginal Corporation and the Manager of the Lake Condah Sustainable Development Project.
Maxine Briggs was appointed as the first Koori Liaison Officer at the State Library of Victoria in 2008. She is an Indigenous Aboriginal Victorian, her tribal groups are Taungwurung/Yota Yota. She previously worked in Aboriginal Community Organisations including The Koori Information Centre, Koori Press and The Koori Arts Collective in the area of cultural Information creation, collection and disemination. She also worked in the Public Service with a focus on Indigenous health in the area of policy development and service delivery in all three levels of Government. Maxine is currently studying for her Graduate Diploma in Information Management at RMIT.
Richard Broome is Professor in History at La Trobe University. He is author of the award winning Aboriginal Victorians. a history since 1800 (2005) and his latest book is Aboriginal Australians: a history since 1788, (fourth edition, 2010). He is currently writing a history of the Victorian Aborigines Advancement League.
Fred Cahir is Aboriginal Studies Coordinator at the University of Ballarat in the School of Behavioural, Social Sciences and Humanities. He publishes widely in the field of 19th century Aboriginal history. His soon to be published PhD, 'Black Gold: a history of the role of Abororiginal people on the goldfields of Victoria, 1850-1870', was awarded the 2008 Australian Historical Association's Alan Martin Award.
Ian D. Clark is an Associate Professor in Tourism in the School of Business at the University of Ballarat. He has a Doctorate in Aboriginal historical geography from Monash University. His research interests include Aboriginal history, the history of tourism, and Victorian toponyms.
Helen Gibbins is a Melbourne anthropologist. Her article arose from an honours thesis completed at Monash University in 2007. She is currently undertaking research in preparation for a documentary film on the gong culture of the people of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Victoria Haskins is ARC Future Fellow at the University of Newcastle, NSW. A senior lecturer in history, she has published widely on Indigenous cross-cultural histories and gender, and her publications include One Bright Spot (2005) and the co-edited collection, Uncommon Ground: white women in Aboriginal history (2005). She is currently working on a comparative history of state intervention and Indigenous domestic labour in the US and Australia, 1880-1945.
Barry Judd is a lecturer at the Centre for Indigenous Australian Studies at Monash University. His research interests focus on sport as a touchstone of Australian society and a social context with a rich history of cross cultural entanglement between Indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.
Jane Lydon is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Australian Indigenous Studies at Monash University. She is currently working on a history of photographing Indigenous Australians in collaboration with descendants. Her books include Fantastic Dreaming: the archaeology of an Aboriginal mission (2009) and Eye Contact: photographing Indigenous Australians (2005).
Raymond Madden is a lecturer in Anthropology and Aboriginal studies in the School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University. He has a particular research interest in Victorian Aboriginal history, culture and society.
Ian J. McNiven is Reader in Archaeology, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University. He specialises in maritime Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies. His books include The Social Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Societies (2006) and Appropriated Pasts: indigenous peoples and the colonial culture of archaeology (2005).
Jane Miller is a reference librarian at the State Library of Victoria. She is undertaking a Staff Fellowship in 2010 to identify and describe primary sources relevant to Australian Indigenous studies.
Lynette Russell is the Director of the Centre for Australian Indigenous Studies at Monash University. She trained as an archaeologist and historian specialising in PostColonial Theory. She is an interdisciplinary scholar with publications across the fields of Archaeology, Aboriginal History, critical race studies, and post-colonial studies. She has written or edited several books, her Roving Mariners: an exploration of Indigenous agency, autonomy and subjectivity in the whaling and sealing industries is forthcoming.
Madeleine Say has been the Picture Librarian at the State Library of Victoria since 2002. She originally trained in the biological sciences, and worked as a research scientist before becoming a librarian.
Shannon Schedlich-Day is a Conjoint Fellow with the School of Humanities & Social Science, at the University of Newcastle. She was awarded her PhD in 2009 for a thesis that examined the shifting energies and changing tensions around the social memory of Australian pioneer women. She has published and presented work on social memory and art history, and is currently undertaking research into public memorials in South Australia.
Sue Taffe is the author of Black and White Together FCAATSI: the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, 1958-1973. She is also the principal author and researcher of the website 'Collaborating for Indigenous Rights' hosted by the National Museum of Australia which can be found at, and the principal researcher for the exhibition 'From Little Things Big Things Grow', National Museum of Australia.
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Indigenous Victorians: repressed, resourceful and respected provides a major contribution to the understanding and appreciation of the lives and aspirations of Victorian Aborigines and their interaction with white Australians from the beginnings of European settlement to the present day.
The articles in this special issue of the La Trobe Journal cover both historical and contemporary subjects, including Aboriginal cricket at Coranderrk, eel fishing at Lake Condah, the revival of the making of possum skin cloaks, and the successful fight to save Lake Tyers. The range and content of the twelve articles ensures that this special issue of the La Trobe Journal will become a landmark collection.